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Once they reached the German border, this source dried up. In France, orders had been relayed within the German army using radio messages enciphered by the Enigma machine , and these could be picked up and decrypted by Allied code-breakers headquartered at Bletchley Park , to give the intelligence known as Ultra.
In Germany such orders were typically transmitted using telephone and teleprinter , and a special radio silence order was imposed on all matters concerning the upcoming offensive.
The foggy autumn weather also prevented Allied reconnaissance aircraft from correctly assessing the ground situation.
German units assembling in the area were even issued charcoal instead of wood for cooking fires to cut down on smoke and reduce chances of Allied observers deducing a troop buildup was underway.
For these reasons Allied High Command considered the Ardennes a quiet sector, relying on assessments from their intelligence services that the Germans were unable to launch any major offensive operations this late in the war.
What little intelligence they had led the Allies to believe precisely what the Germans wanted them to believe-—that preparations were being carried out only for defensive, not offensive, operations.
The Allies relied too much on Ultra, not human reconnaissance. This was done by increasing the number of flak Fl ug a bwehr k anonen, i.
The Allies at this point thought the information was of no importance. All of this meant that the attack, when it came, completely surprised the Allied forces.
These predictions were largely dismissed by the U. Because the Ardennes was considered a quiet sector, considerations of economy of force led it to be used as a training ground for new units and a rest area for units that had seen hard fighting.
Two major special operations were planned for the offensive. These soldiers were to be dressed in American and British uniforms and wear dog tags taken from corpses and prisoners of war.
Their job was to go behind American lines and change signposts, misdirect traffic, generally cause disruption and seize bridges across the Meuse River.
By late November another ambitious special operation was added: German intelligence had set 20 December as the expected date for the start of the upcoming Soviet offensive , aimed at crushing what was left of German resistance on the Eastern Front and thereby opening the way to Berlin.
It was hoped that Soviet leader Stalin would delay the start of the operation once the German assault in the Ardennes had begun and wait for the outcome before continuing.
Believing in omens and the successes of his early war campaigns that had been planned at Kransberg, Hitler had chosen the site from which he had overseen the successful campaign against France and the Low Countries.
Von Rundstedt set up his operational headquarters near Limburg , close enough for the generals and Panzer Corps commanders who were to lead the attack to visit Adlerhorst on 11 December, travelling there in an SS-operated bus convoy.
Alfred Jodl , Gen. Wilhelm Keitel , Gen. Blumentritt , von Manteuffel and SS Gen. Model told him it was necessary to make the attempt: On 16 December at Heavy snowstorms engulfed parts of the Ardennes area.
While having the effect of keeping the Allied aircraft grounded, the weather also proved troublesome for the Germans because poor road conditions hampered their advance.
Poor traffic control led to massive traffic jams and fuel shortages in forward units. Vith , both road junctions of great strategic importance.
Only one month before, members of the Waffen-SS had unsuccessfully tried to recapture the town of Vianden with its castle from the Luxembourgish resistance during the Battle of Vianden.
While the Siege of Bastogne is often credited as the central point where the German offensive was stopped,  the battle for Elsenborn Ridge was actually the decisive component of the Battle of the Bulge, stopping the advance of the best equipped armored units of the German army and forcing them to reroute their troops to unfavorable alternative routes that considerably slowed their advance.
The 6th Panzer Army was given priority for supply and equipment and was assigned the shortest route to the ultimate objective of the offensive, Antwerp.
Its newest and most powerful tank, the Tiger II heavy tank, consumed 3. To preserve the quantity of armor available, the infantry of the 9th Fallschirmjaeger Regiment, 3rd Fallschirmjaeger Division , had been ordered to clear the village first.
A single man Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon from the 99th Infantry Division along with four Forward Air Controllers held up the battalion of about German paratroopers until sunset, about This created a bottleneck in the German advance.
Kampfgruppe Peiper did not begin his advance until nearly Their intention was to control the twin villages of Rocherath-Krinkelt which would clear a path to the high ground of Elsenborn Ridge.
They were disarmed and, with some other Americans captured earlier approximately men , sent to stand in a field near the crossroads under light guard.
Allegedly, the SS troopers suddenly opened fire on the prisoners. As soon as the firing began, the prisoners panicked. Most were shot where they stood, though some managed to flee.
Accounts of the killing vary, but at least 84 of the POWs were murdered. A few survived, and news of the killings of prisoners of war spread through Allied lines.
They quickly captured portions of the 3rd Battalion of the th Infantry Regiment. They destroyed a number of American armored units and vehicles, and took several dozen prisoners who were subsequently murdered.
To the north, the th Volksgrenadier Division attempted to break through the defending line of the U. The 12th SS Panzer Division , reinforced by additional infantry Panzergrenadier and Volksgrenadier divisions, took the key road junction at Losheimergraben just north of Lanzerath and attacked the twin villages of Rocherath and Krinkelt.
Another, smaller massacre was committed in Wereth , Belgium, approximately 6. Eleven black American soldiers were tortured after surrendering and then shot by men of the 1st SS Panzer Division belonging to Schnellgruppe Knittel.
The perpetrators were never punished for this crime and recent research indicates that men from Third Company of the Reconnaissance Battalion were responsible.
By the evening the spearhead had pushed north to engage the U. They took 36 hours to advance from the Eifel region to Stavelot, while the same advance required nine hours in Kampfgruppe Peiper attacked Stavelot on 18 December but was unable to capture the town before the Americans evacuated a large fuel depot.
Following this, 60 grenadiers advanced forward but were stopped by concentrated American defensive fire. After a fierce tank battle the next day, the Germans finally entered the town when U.
Capitalizing on his success and not wanting to lose more time, Peiper rushed an advance group toward the vital bridge at Trois-Ponts , leaving the bulk of his strength in Stavelot.
When they reached it at At Cheneux, the advance guard was attacked by American fighter-bombers, destroying two tanks and five halftracks, blocking the narrow road.
The group began moving again at dusk at Of the two bridges remaining between Kampfgruppe Peiper and the Meuse, the bridge over the Lienne was blown by the Americans as the Germans approached.
Peiper turned north and halted his forces in the woods between La Gleize and Stoumont. Knittel pressed forward towards La Gleize, and shortly afterward the Americans recaptured Stavelot.
Peiper and Knittel both faced the prospect of being cut off. He followed this with a Panzer attack, gaining the eastern edge of the town.
An American tank battalion arrived but, after a two-hour tank battle, Peiper finally captured Stoumont at Knittel joined up with Peiper and reported the Americans had recaptured Stavelot to their east.
Assessing his own situation, he determined that his Kampfgruppe did not have sufficient fuel to cross the bridge west of Stoumont and continue his advance.
He maintained his lines west of Stoumont for a while, until the evening of 19 December when he withdrew them to the village edge.
On the same evening the U. German efforts to reinforce Peiper were unsuccessful. Kampfgruppe Hansen was still struggling against bad road conditions and stiff American resistance on the southern route.
Schnellgruppe Knittel was forced to disengage from the heights around Stavelot. Kampfgruppe Sandig, which had been ordered to take Stavelot, launched another attack without success.
Small units of the U. They failed and were forced to withdraw, and a number were captured, including battalion commander Maj. As he withdrew from Cheneux, American paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division engaged the Germans in fierce house-to-house fighting.
The Americans shelled Kampfgruppe Peiper on 22 December, and although the Germans had run out of food and had virtually no fuel, they continued to fight.
In La Gleize, Peiper set up defenses waiting for German relief. When the relief force was unable to penetrate the Allied lines, he decided to break through the Allied lines and return to the German lines on 23 December.
The men of the Kampfgruppe were forced to abandon their vehicles and heavy equipment, although most of the remaining troops were able to escape.
The US 99th Infantry Division, outnumbered five to one, inflicted casualties in the ratio of 18 to one. German losses were much higher. In the northern sector opposite the 99th, this included more than 4, deaths and the destruction of 60 tanks and big guns.
Army prevented the German forces from reaching the road network to their west. Hautes Fagnes ; German: Hohes Venn ; Dutch: The objective was the " Baraque Michel " crossroads.
Von der Heydte was given only eight days to prepare prior to the assault. He was not allowed to use his own regiment because their movement might alert the Allies to the impending counterattack.
Instead, he was provided with a Kampfgruppe of men. The II Parachute Corps was tasked with contributing men from each of its regiments.
The parachute drop was a complete failure. Von der Heydte ended up with a total of around troops. Too small and too weak to counter the Allies, they abandoned plans to take the crossroads and instead converted the mission to reconnaissance.
With only enough ammunition for a single fight, they withdrew towards Germany and attacked the rear of the American lines. Only about of his weary men finally reached the German rear.
The Germans lacked the overwhelming strength that had been deployed in the north, but still possessed a marked numerical and material superiority over the very thinly spread 28th and th divisions.
The amount lost in arms and equipment, of course, was very substantial. The Schnee Eifel battle, therefore, represents the most serious reverse suffered by American arms during the operations of —45 in the European theater.
In the center, the town of St. The defenders, led by the 7th Armored Division , included the remaining regiment of the th U.
Infantry Division, with elements of the 9th Armored Division and 28th U. These units, which operated under the command of Generals Robert W. Hasbrouck 7th Armored and Alan W.
Jones th Infantry , successfully resisted the German attacks, significantly slowing the German advance. Vith was evacuated on 21 December; U.
Since the German plan called for the capture of St. To protect the river crossings on the Meuse at Givet, Dinant and Namur, Montgomery ordered those few units available to hold the bridges on 19 December.
This led to a hastily assembled force including rear-echelon troops, military police and Army Air Force personnel. The British 29th Armoured Brigade of British 11th Armoured Division , which had turned in its tanks for re-equipping, was told to take back their tanks and head to the area.
British XXX Corps was significantly reinforced for this effort. Unlike the German forces on the northern and southern shoulders who were experiencing great difficulties, the German advance in the center gained considerable ground.
The Ourthe River was passed at Ourtheville on 21 December. Lack of fuel held up the advance for one day, but on 23 December the offensive was resumed towards the two small towns of Hargimont and Marche-en-Famenne.
Hargimont was captured the same day, but Marche-en-Famenne was strongly defended by the American 84th Division. Although advancing only in a narrow corridor, 2nd Panzer Division was still making rapid headway, leading to jubilation in Berlin.
The narrow corridor caused considerable difficulties, as constant flanking attacks threatened the division. On 24 December, German forces made their furthest penetration west.
A hastily assembled Allied blocking force on the east side of the river prevented the German probing forces from approaching the Dinant bridge. By late Christmas Eve the advance in this sector was stopped, as Allied forces threatened the narrow corridor held by the 2nd Panzer Division.
For Operation Greif " Griffin " , Otto Skorzeny successfully infiltrated a small part of his battalion of English-speaking Germans disguised in American uniforms behind the Allied lines.
Although they failed to take the vital bridges over the Meuse, their presence caused confusion out of all proportion to their military activities, and rumors spread quickly.
Checkpoints were set up all over the Allied rear, greatly slowing the movement of soldiers and equipment. General Omar Bradley was briefly detained when he correctly identified Springfield as the capital of Illinois because the American MP who questioned him mistakenly believed the capital was Chicago.
The tightened security nonetheless made things very hard for the German infiltrators, and a number of them were captured.
Even during interrogation, they continued their goal of spreading disinformation ; when asked about their mission, some of them claimed they had been told to go to Paris to either kill or capture General Dwight Eisenhower.
Skorzeny was tried by an American military tribunal in at the Dachau Trials for allegedly violating the laws of war stemming from his leadership of Operation Greif, but was acquitted.
He later moved to Spain and South America. These agents were tasked with using an existing Nazi intelligence network to bribe rail and port workers to disrupt Allied supply operations.
The operation was a failure. The more experienced US 28th Infantry Division put up a much more dogged defense than the inexperienced soldiers of the th Infantry Division.
The th and th Regiments of the 28th Division fared worse, as they were spread so thinly that their positions were easily bypassed.
Both offered stubborn resistance in the face of superior forces and threw the German schedule off by several days. Panzer columns took the outlying villages and widely separated strong points in bitter fighting, and advanced to points near Bastogne within four days.
The struggle for the villages and American strong points, plus transport confusion on the German side, slowed the attack sufficiently to allow the st Airborne Division reinforced by elements from the 9th and 10th Armored Divisions to reach Bastogne by truck on the morning of 19 December.
The fierce defense of Bastogne, in which American paratroopers particularly distinguished themselves, made it impossible for the Germans to take the town with its important road junctions.
The panzer columns swung past on either side, cutting off Bastogne on 20 December but failing to secure the vital crossroads.
VIII Corps after an advance of 6. Eisenhower and his principal commanders realized by 17 December that the fighting in the Ardennes was a major offensive and not a local counterattack, and they ordered vast reinforcements to the area.
Within a week , troops had been sent. General Gavin of the 82nd Airborne Division arrived on the scene first and ordered the st to hold Bastogne while the 82nd would take the more difficult task of facing the SS Panzer Divisions; it was also thrown into the battle north of the bulge, near Elsenborn Ridge.
By the time the senior Allied commanders met in a bunker in Verdun on 19 December, the town of Bastogne and its network of 11 hard-topped roads leading through the widely forested mountainous terrain with deep river valleys and boggy mud of the Ardennes region had been in German hands for several days, Bastogne having previously been the site of the VIII Corps headquarters.
Moreover, the sole corridor that was open to the southeast was threatened and it had been sporadically closed as the front shifted, and there was expectation that it would be completely closed sooner than later, given the strong likelihood that the town would soon be surrounded.
Eisenhower, realizing that the Allies could destroy German forces much more easily when they were out in the open and on the offensive than if they were on the defensive, told his generals, "The present situation is to be regarded as one of opportunity for us and not of disaster.
There will be only cheerful faces at this table. To the disbelief of the other generals present, Patton replied that he could attack with two divisions within 48 hours.
Unknown to the other officers present, before he left Patton had ordered his staff to prepare three contingency plans for a northward turn in at least corps strength.
By the time Eisenhower asked him how long it would take, the movement was already underway. Conditions inside the perimeter were tough—most of the medical supplies and medical personnel had been captured.
Food was scarce, and by 22 December artillery ammunition was restricted to 10 rounds per gun per day. The weather cleared the next day and supplies primarily ammunition were dropped over four of the next five days.
Despite determined German attacks the perimeter held. The German commander, Generalleutnant Lt. Anthony McAuliffe , acting commander of the st, was told of the Nazi demand to surrender, in frustration he responded, "Nuts!
Because it lacked sufficient troops and those of the 26th VG Division were near exhaustion, the XLVII Panzerkorps concentrated its assault on several individual locations on the west side of the perimeter in sequence rather than launching one simultaneous attack on all sides.
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His comments were interpreted as self-promoting, particularly his claiming that when the situation "began to deteriorate," Eisenhower had placed him in command in the north.
Patton and Eisenhower both felt this was a misrepresentation of the relative share of the fighting played by the British and Americans in the Ardennes for every British soldier there were thirty to forty Americans in the fight , and that it belittled the part played by Bradley, Patton and other American commanders.
Indeed, General Bradley and his American commanders were already starting their counterattack by the time Montgomery was given command of 1st and 9th U.
He later attributed this to needing more time for preparation on the northern front. According to Winston Churchill, the attack from the south under Patton was steady but slow and involved heavy losses, and Montgomery was trying to avoid this situation.
Many American officers had already grown to dislike Montgomery, who was seen by them as an overly cautious commander, arrogant, and all too willing to say uncharitable things about the Americans.
The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill found it necessary in a speech to Parliament to explicitly state that the Battle of the Bulge was purely an American victory.
Montgomery subsequently recognized his error and later wrote: Montgomery later said, "Distorted or not, I think now that I should never have held that press conference.
So great were the feelings against me on the part of the American generals that whatever I said was bound to be wrong.
I should therefore have said nothing. They believed he had belittled them—and they were not slow to voice reciprocal scorn and contempt. Eisenhower, encouraged by his British deputy Arthur Tedder , had decided to sack Montgomery.
Freddie de Guingand , and Lt. Walter Bedell Smith , moved Eisenhower to reconsider and allowed Montgomery to apologize. The operations of the American 1st Army had developed into a series of individual holding actions.
It was his refusal to engage in premature and piecemeal counter-attacks which enabled the Americans to gather their reserves and frustrate the German attempts to extend their breakthrough.
Casualty estimates for the battle vary widely. According to the U. Department of Defense , American forces suffered 89, casualties including 19, killed, 47, wounded and 23, missing.
Armies listed 75, casualties 8, killed, 46, wounded and 21, missing. British casualties totaled 1, with deaths. The German High Command estimated that they lost between 81, and 98, men in the Bulge between 16 December and 28 January ; the accepted figure was 81,, of which 12, were killed, 38, were wounded, and 30, were missing.
German armored losses to all causes were between and , with tanks being lost in combat. Although the Germans managed to begin their offensive with complete surprise and enjoyed some initial successes, they were not able to seize the initiative on the Western front.
While the German command did not reach its goals, the Ardennes operation inflicted heavy losses and set back the Allied invasion of Germany by several weeks.
The High Command of the Allied forces had planned to resume the offensive by early January , after the wet season rains and severe frosts, but those plans had to be postponed until 29 January in connection with the unexpected changes in the front.
The Allies pressed their advantage following the battle. By the beginning of February , the lines were roughly where they had been in December In early February, the Allies launched an attack all along the Western front: The German losses in the battle were especially critical: In response to the early success of the offensive, on 6 January Churchill contacted Stalin to request that the Soviets put pressure on the Germans on the Eastern Front.
Because of troop shortages during the Battle of the Bulge, Eisenhower decided to integrate the service for the first time. More than 2, black soldiers had volunteered to go to the front.
The phrase "Battle of the Bulge" was coined by contemporary press to describe the bulge in German front lines on wartime news maps,  [k]  and it became the most widely used name for the battle.
The offensive was planned by the German forces with utmost secrecy, with minimal radio traffic and movements of troops and equipment under cover of darkness.
Intercepted German communications indicating a substantial German offensive preparation were not acted upon by the Allies. The battle around Bastogne received a great deal of media attention because in early December it was a rest and recreation area for many war correspondents.
At Bletchley Park, F. Lucas and Peter Calvocoressi of Hut 3 were tasked by General Nye as part of the enquiry set up by the Chiefs of Staff with writing a report on the lessons to be learned from the handling of pre-battle Ultra.
For its part, Hut 3 had grown "shy of going beyond its job of amending and explaining German messages. Drawing broad conclusions was for the intelligence staff at SHAEF, who had information from all sources," including aerial reconnaissance.
Rose, head Air Adviser in Hut 3, read the paper at the time and described it in as "an extremely good report" that "showed the failure of intelligence at SHAEF and at the Air Ministry".
After the war ended, the U. Army issued battle credit in the form of the Ardennes-Alsace campaign citation to units and individuals that took part in operations in northwest Europe.
Third Army racing north, engaged in the concurrent Operation Nordwind diversion in central and southern Alsace launched to weaken Allied response in the Ardennes, and provided reinforcements to units fighting in the Ardennes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Operation Wahrung. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 30 January For other uses, see Battle of the Bulge disambiguation.
Vith during the Battle of the Bulge, January Belgium , Luxembourg , Germany. December 16 , men tanks tank destroyers and assault guns 1, other AFVs 4, anti-tank and artillery pieces 13 infantry divisions [a] 7 armored divisions 1 brigade: Battle of the Bulge.
West European Campaign — Front line, 16 December. Front line, 20 December. Front line, 25 December. Wehrmacht forces for the Ardennes Offensive.
Battle of the Bulge order of battle. Battle of Elsenborn Ridge. The Sixth Panzer Army Attack. Operation Bodenplatte and Operation Nordwind. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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I had nothing to do with it. It came to me as an order complete to the last detail. Jablonsky, David , Churchill and Hitler: In this case it signified rejection, and was explained to the Germans as meaning "Go to Hell!
Cowdrey and Graham A. Cosmas, The Medical Department: Many of these may have been returned to their units, and others may have come from American units operating in the Colmar area but still supported by Seventh Army medical services.
In foreground a platoon leader indicates the target to a rifleman by actually firing on the target. In Bastogne the defenders were badly in need of relief, they were attacked nightly by German aircraft, supplies were critically low in spite of the airdrops, and the wounded could not be given proper attention because of the shortage of medical supplies.
After an advance which had been slow, U. For the strength of the opposing sides at any one time, see table above. Archived from the original on 25 May Retrieved 29 May Advanced Infantry Officers Course, — Archived from the original PDF on 18 March Retrieved 24 February Army Center for Military History.
The Sixth Panzer Army Attack". Office of the Chief of Military History. The "Other" Battle of the Bulge".
Retrieved 20 June Troops Fight at Elsenborn Ridge". Retrieved 14 July Archived from the original on 28 July Retrieved 12 July Archived from the original on 25 February Retrieved 17 March Office de Promotion du Tourisme de Wallonie et de Bruxelles.
Retrieved 26 August Retrieved 10 July From Yorktown to Operation Desert Storm. I SS Panzer Corps: The Ardennes and Eastern Front, — The Experience of International and National Courts.
Solis 15 February The Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War. Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 16 May The First Eight Days.
Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 23 February World War II Magazine. Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 16 June Center for Military History.
The Bitter Woods First ed. Battle Of Hurtgen Forest. Monty holds a press conference". Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 12 June Warfare and Armed Conflicts: Code-breaking in Bletchley Park.
Retrieved 6 June The Inside Story of Bletchley Park , eds. Hinsley and Alan Strip, eds. Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 26 December A Duty-Dance with Death.
Ballantine Books Bouwmeester, Maj. Han , Beginning of the End: Moffat , Strike and Hold: The Tigers of Bastogne: Voices of the 10th Armored Division in the Battle of the Bulge.
Delaforce, Patrick , The Battle of the Bulge: Accounts of Over Battles from B. Victory in the West. Naval and Military Press. Michael , Nuts!: The Battle of the Bulge: The First Eight Days , U.
An Encyclopedic Reference to U. The Story of the Bulge , Lincoln: From Oran to Pilsen: Battle of the Bulge , Oxford: Axis and Axis-aligned leaders.
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Bard Battle of Valley of Tears. Battle of 73 Easting. Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.
Allied victory Western Allied offensive plans delayed by five or six weeks  German offensive exhausts their resources on Western Front. German collapse opens way for Allies to ultimately break Siegfried Line Soviet offensive in Poland launched on 12 January , eight days earlier than originally intended.
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